Digitalization, artificial intelligence, and machine learning are eliminating many jobs involving low and middle-skill routine tasks through automation. Our new research finds the trend toward greater automation will be especially challenging for women.
On average, women face an 11 percent risk of losing their jobs due to automation, compared to 9 percent of their male counterparts. What policies can countries implement now to ensure that women contribute to the economy, while moving toward greater automation?
Globalization, digital innovation and climate change, among other factors, continue to change the world in which we work — posing both challenges as well as. “This survey clearly shows that most women and men around the globe prefer that women have paid jobs. Family-supportive policies, which enable women to.
The chart below shows how the automation of jobs effects people in different countries. Men and women in the United Kingdom and the United States face about the same amount of risk for job automation. Women are currently underrepresented in fields experiencing job growth, such as engineering and information and communications technology. In tech, women are 15 percent less likely than men to be managers and professionals, and 19 percent are more likely to be clerks and service workers performing more routine tasks, which leaves women at a high risk of displacement by technology.
More than ever, women will need to break the glass ceiling. Our analysis shows that differences in routineness of job tasks exacerbate gender inequality in returns to labor. Even after taking into account such factors as differences in skill, experience and choice of occupation, nearly 5 percent of the wage gap between women and men is because women perform more routine job tasks. There are some bright spots.
Coping with aging populations will require both more human workers and greater use of artificial intelligence, robotics, and other advanced technologies to complement and boost productivity of workers in healthcare services.
This gap increases by over an hour if they have children. What is needed, then?
More services, beginning with nurseries. In Italy today, just It is no coincidence that the number of women who permanently leave work after having their first child remains high. Data provided by the National Labour Inspectorate suggests that the number of women who leave a job in a year is 29, Among the mothers, just 5, leave to take a job at another company, while the remaining 24, specify reasons linked to the difficulty of taking care of a child high childcare costs or a lack of nurseries or of establishing a work-family balance.
This number has increased in recent years, especially in the North and Centre. But in the South, the figures remain low and nurseries rarely operate extended hours.
But the biggest change needed is a cultural one, relating to sharing domestic work between men and women , an imbalance that is beginning to decrease in young couples. And it is along the road - albeit a long and torturous one - to improving the state of female employment that education and qualifications become hugely important. This is where Italy excels.
The World Economic Forum says the number women now enrolling in universities exceeds the number of men by 36 percentage points. And certificates of higher education correlate with lower salary gender gaps and more women in work.
Changing the system could mean creating laws that divide maternity and paternity leave equally, as is already the case in many central and northern European countries. But the cultural issue is, of course, evident in the existing legislation.
Having to cease working for days is often problematic, but changing the system could involve creating laws that divide maternity and paternity leave equally. This is already the case in many Central and Northern European countries where the idea that the father is also responsible for looking after and educating his children has influenced law-making.
Italy, on the other hand, gives fathers just four days of paternity leave, compared to 13 in Spain and 73 in France.
A recent Eurofound report on the matter confirms that of all European countries, Italy would benefit most from an increase in female employment.