They saw the rising popularity of the sociology of knowledge as a neutralization and betrayal of Marxist inspiration. Frankfurt School theorists such as Horkheimer, Adorno , and Erich Fromm , who were exiled to the United States by the Nazis, carried out the analysis of ideology from the perspective of social psychology by incorporating Freudian psychoanalysis and American empirical research methods. They applied their critique of ideology to the analysis of totalitarianism.
They observed that those who were critical of Nazism eventually became supporters of the Nazis due to propaganda and cultural mass manipulation. They pointed out the conceptual affinity between Nazi ideology and what they called "totalitarian personality. After the s, Daniel Bell , an American sociologist, diagnosed the post-War era as the "end of ideology" and argued the coming of the era to be one of technology and positivism. Meta-ideology is the study of the structure, form, and manifestation of ideologies. Meta-ideology posits that ideology is a coherent system of ideas, relying upon a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis, but are subjective choices that serve as the seeds from which further thought grows.
According to this perspective, ideologies are neither right nor wrong, but only a relativistic intellectual strategy for categorizing the world. The positive and negative effects of ideology range from the vigor and fervor of true believers to ideological infallibility. The works of George Walford and Harold Walsby, done under the heading of systematic ideology, are attempts to explore the relationships between ideology and social systems.
Mullins emphasizes that an ideology should be contrasted with the related but different issues of utopia and historical myth. The German philosopher Christian Duncker called for a "critical reflection of the ideology concept" In his work, he strove to bring the concept of ideology into the foreground, as well as the closely connected concerns of epistemology and history.
In this work, the term ideology is defined in terms of a system of presentations that explicitly or implicitly claim to absolute truth.
Though the word "ideology" is most often found in political discourse, there are many different kinds of ideology: Political, social, epistemological , ethical , and so on. Many political parties base their political action and program on an ideology. In social studies, a political ideology is a certain ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement , institution, class , or large group that explains how society should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order.
A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely, while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them.
An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government for example, democracy , theocracy, etc. Sometimes the same word is used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, "socialism" may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology that supports that economic system. Ideologies also identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum such as the left, center, or right , though this is very often controversial.
Finally, ideologies can be distinguished from political strategies for example, populism and from single issues that a party may be built around such as opposition to European integration or the legalization of marijuana. Studies of the concept of ideology itself rather than specific ideologies have been carried out under the name of systematic ideology.
Political ideologies are concerned with many different aspects of a society, some of which are: The economy, education , health care, labor law, criminal law , the justice system, the provision of social security and social welfare, trade, the environment , minors, immigration, race, use of the military , patriotism , and established religion. While science may seem to assert an objective method, some observe that science in itself is a form of an ideology in the forms of the scientific method or as scientism.
One case of science adopted as ideology is that of ecology , which studies the relationships between living things on Earth.
Perceptual psychologist J. Gibson believed that human perception of ecological relationships was the basis of self-awareness and cognition itself. Linguist George Lakoff has proposed a cognitive science of mathematics wherein even the most fundamental ideas of arithmetic would be seen as consequences or products of human perception—which itself necessarily evolved within ecology. Deep ecology and the modern ecology movement and, to a lesser degree, Green parties appear to have adopted ecological sciences as a positive ideology.
The modern practice of green economics fuses both approaches and seems to be part science, part ideology. This is far from the only theory of economics to be raised to ideology status—some notable economy-based ideologies include mercantilism , social Darwinism, communism , laissez-faire economics, and free trade. There are also current theories of safe trade and fair trade which can be seen as ideologies.
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The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:. Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Previous Idealism. Credits New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Categories : Philosophy and religion Philosophy Politics and social sciences. Politics by country Political science Political history Political scientists Comparative government International relations Political economy Political philosophy Political psychology Form of government Sovereignty Public administration Consent of the governed Theories of political behavior.
Politics Portal. Contents 1 Historical background 2 Karl Marx's formulation of ideology 3 Critique of ideology after Marx 4 Meta-ideology 5 Political ideologies 6 Epistemological ideologies 7 References 8 External links 8. Political ideologies. Further in the discussion, Professor Belew let slip a prime indicator of the sort of discourse analytics she is actually applying when she noted that white supremacy undergirds large swaths of our electoral and judicial institutions. Again, intentionality everywhere!
Often, when people use the word "ideology" they are referring to a particular ideology rather than the concept itself. The Nazis suffered an overwhelming military loss and met with sweeping condemnation from nearly the entire world, yet its name and ideas linger on. Social or modern liberalism is liberalism which focuses on social and economic issues while ensuring individual freedom. How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. You're now subscribed to receive email updates! Leninism focused on a proletariat dictatorship based on Lenin's theories of government.
One could hope in this day and age that people might finally wake up to the fact that our local and state governments have ceded far too many of their responsibilities up the chain of command, even as, at the federal level, Congress has ceded far too much of its authority to the executive branch.
Real community is local, not virtual—and it is only at this level that we will get a rein on the problem. Are we then, in a moment of fear and distress, to centralize even more power to classify harmful and less harmful thoughts, as Professor Belew seems to be suggesting? About the Author. Of course that is true—we also must be careful not to call something a conspiracy when in fact it is evilness and sin—-the more sin the more likely it is to be classified as a conspiracy to hide the fact that we just might have a religious element within the culture that must be talked about.
As the social fabric and culture turns more to evilness the more it looks like conspiracy—-for all are or most are doing something evil and sinful. While ideological and psychological constructs may be useful in describing the motivations of mass-killers, the concept of moral character as an important factor in the decision to kill than either the ideology or psyche of the killer would be more useful. Character education has been downgraded to the point of non-existence in our school systems, and, coupled with the decline in the influence of religious influence, some individuals have no sound basis for evaluating their own behavior against a standard of morally acceptable behavior.
The intense influence of the portrayal of killing in literature, the entertainment media, and computer games cannot be discounted as irrelevant to the formation and encouragement of a murderous character. I would count character formation and psychological health as related issues. It is, in fact, why actual face to face type community remains vital. Eicholz appears to treat Belew as though she was thinking in good faith but only in a misguided fashion. This is not at all the case.
Such writers fit the data to the curve to which they have already committed themselves mind, body and soul.
White supremacy is accepted as a fact which to challenge or question in even the slightest degree would mean ostracism, banishment, loss of tenure, investigation by bias hit squads, doxxing, etc. The orthodoxy is enforced as stringently as ever Marxist or Christian dogmatics were in their heydays. This is the very definition of bad faith. The proof is that these same people will not permit even a suggestion that Muslim terrorists are Islamic supremacists.
No—Islam is a religion of peace; a few fanatics are not evidence of any ideologically-driven danger. Who will apply the Obama existential crisis test today? Dog-whistling lmao… Every Trump supporter and every non-democrat is a secret agent with orders provided subliminally… Seems reasonable. Progressives and the modern left are unable to tolerate views other than theirs, and a simply demonizing their intellectual and political opponents.
This is a revolutionary tactic, not a set of serious arguments. Note that neither the El Paso murderer nor the Dayton murderer were white supremacists.