The core of the analysis lies in a sort of theoretical flip with respect to the classic structural view.
Starting with the importance of power and distributive conflict, the chapter proposes to treat institutional change as a kind of policy change. The Sect. The history of London governance provides some valuable examples of institutional experimentation. In investigating the link between institutional and policy change, the chapter briefly investigates such varied history, to concentrate on the last reform which established the Greater London Authority GLA.
The process by which the new government was established in is thoroughly analysed, and both the parliamentary and the administrative negotiations are investigated. The second part of the chapter discusses the change enacted by the GLA; in particular, the differences in the ways policies are formulated. This second part permits us to trace the link between institutional change and policy changes in metropolitan transport.
The governance of transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona experienced several institutional restructurings between the s and the s. The analysis starts with the constitution of a tier of metropolitan government in and its subsequent abolition by the Catalan region in The ATM included a wider territory with respect to the former metropolitan government and saw the participation of not only the municipalities, but also the Catalan region.
The chapter investigates the process by which the ATM was established, the main features of such institutional transformation and the resulting effects on policy capacity. The chapter presents conclusive remarks organised into three sections. Supporters of institutional change should exploit windows of opportunity opened by such exogenous factors and act as entrepreneurs to trigger change processes.
The section confirms the importance of distributive conflicts on institutional change and reports on several variables affecting the results of change.
Title Governing Metropolitan Transport. Publisher Springer International Publishing. The functions assigned to this level should be executed within the framework of provincial legislation, policy, guidelines, norms and standards and appropriate institutional structures should be established to take responsibility for these functions. Services, district and local councils will act as transport authorities. They will have the same powers and functions as metropolitan authorities to do planning and implementation of infrastructure and operations.
Provincial transport departments will be responsible for co-ordination in respect of services, district and local structures and, in particular, rural bodies which have little or no competence to administer the function. The public passenger transport system in South Africa will be based on regulated competition. The regulation will be in the form of a permission, contract or concession awarded in terms of a passenger transport plan and supported by strict law enforcement. Permission is the authority to operate a route or network with no subsidy. There should be a fundamental shift away from monopolistic situations.
There should also be a shift away from systems which target commuters only towards one which benefits all passengers. The future regulation of land passenger transport in South Africa will be in the form of a permission, awarded in terms of a passenger transport plan and supported by strict law enforcement. Permission is the authority to operate a route or a combination of routes or a network.
Contracts will only be awarded to privately-owned or corporatised municipal and parastatal bus companies and registered minibus operators to ensure that there is fair competition between competing tenderers. All road-based public transport operators should:.
Successful tenderers, when awarded a contract, will automatically be awarded a permission to operate. Permissions for unsubsidised services will also be awarded only to registered operators on the basis of a PTP. Contracts shall only be awarded by the transport authority to a recognised route entity, co-operative, association, close corporation, company or a legal person, and should be based on a passenger transport plan. Rail operations should be based on operating and maintenance concessions, awarded by transport authorities, based on a transport plan with ownership of infrastructure and rolling stock being retained by transport authorities.
Minibus taxis : regulated competition will mean that the minibus taxi industry will have to be formalised and measures introduced to enhance its economic viability. Minibus- taxis could form legally registered businesses, for example, co-operatives or companies, or be registered associations. These will have to operate in terms of permissions to operate on a route or network. Permissions will be granted by the provincial permit board.
The number of permissions granted on a route or network will be determined by need demand estimated in terms of the PTP. Minibus-taxi businesses may also compete for the awarding of contracts by transport authorities. Bus operations: all bus operations must either be privately owned legal entities or fully corporatised municipal or parastatal bus companies.
They may obtain permission to operate from the provincial permit board. They may also compete for contracts which will be awarded by a transport authority. Existing permits on subsidised routes will have to be translated into interim contracts. Specific efforts should be made to encourage small, medium and micro enterprises SMMEs in the bus transport industry.
Rail passenger transport: the national transport authority will own the rail infrastructure, rolling stock and land associated with rail reserves. Steps will be taken to utilise rail reserves in accordance with transport plans and spatial development frameworks. Operating and maintenance concessions will then be awarded by the transport authorities at provincial or metropolitan level. The current deficit financing system will have to be abolished and replaced with a concession system which will ensure more efficient and effective use of funds.
The transport authorities will determine fares based on a common cost structure and taking account of the fares of other modes. All transport operators will be encouraged and empowered to bid for contracts and concessions. Contracts will be partitioned into manageable parcels to encourage bids by co-operatives comprising small, medium and micro enterprises SMMEs. Urban and particularly public transport have experienced low priority in national funding, apart from the subsidisation of rail and bus services.
To augment funds transferred from central level, fiscal powers for provincial and local governments in respect of their functional responsibilities will be sought. The application of funds to transport improvements should be self-sustaining and replicable. To encourage this, the users of urban transport facilities should pay for all or most of the costs incurred within the limits of affordability. Where subsidies are required for welfare considerations or to promote public transport they will be applied through mechanisms which provide incentives for efficiency.
Funding should, however, be channelled through a single authority. This is to ensure that transport operations do not receive funds from more than one authority for offering the same service. A single authority therefore needs to co-ordinate the funds that any one operator receives for rendering passenger services.
Transport authorities, in consultation with communities, must define passenger transport needs at affordable fare levels in order to identify and target recipients of mobility support. Minibus and other SMME transport operators will be encouraged to compete for the award of contracts by transport authorities. Assistance will be offered to disadvantaged operators to enable them to participate in the system. Transport authorities should apply alternative support mechanisms aimed at cost reduction for current minibus operators. Funds must be allocated to authorities on a rational basis.
Incentives, in terms of additional funding, should be offered to authorities for promoting public transport investment. Operational subsidies should be based on tendered contracts. These should be in terms of a rational and common cost structure, allowing for some flexibility for differences in, for example, operating conditions. Infrastructure funding for road-based public passenger transport should mainly be the responsibility of metropolitan transport authorities or local authorities with assistance from provincial transport authorities, based on passenger transport plans.
The national government could provide incentive or seed funding to such metropolitan transport authorities or local authorities to develop infrastructure in support of public transport over private transport. Rail infrastructure may be funded primarily by the national government, but may also be funded by a provincial government, having due regard for the financial implications of the operation of rail services.
Funding of operations should be the responsibility of metropolitan transport authorities or local authorities, with own funds as well as funds allocated to them by provincial transport authorities in terms of passenger transport plans.
The base mechanism for subsidising road-based public transport is the competitive tender. In the application of funds to support public transport or assist targeted users, transport authorities will be expected to determine the details of the mechanism which suit local conditions. Concessionary fares for different types of user should be considered to target special categories of passengers.
Transport authorities have total discretion in deciding whom should be the beneficiaries of targeted subsidy. The Department of Transport, in collaboration with other government departments, will develop mechanisms to assist, especially the minibus-taxi industry. All levels of government must be responsible for identifying needs in establishing priorities and programmes to build expertise on an ongoing basis. Education and training facilities must be established to promote human resource development in land passenger transport. Initially, existing education and training facilities must be deployed to meeting training needs.
Governing Metropolitan Transport. Institutional Solutions for Policy Problems Two in-depth case studies on institutional change in metropolitan transport (in. Compre Governing Metropolitan Transport: Institutional Solutions for Policy Problems (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology) (English Edition) de.
All role players should be given the opportunity to gain access to such facilities. Integration of SMMEs into the formal public transport system should be addressed pro-actively and in a structured manner by all levels of government and will be a priority in the transitional restructuring of the passenger transport industry.